Dutch inventions dating 17th century
A loss of media or scratches, often resulting in a loss on the surface, extending to the paint and ground layers, caused by faulty cleaning, friction as well as where the frame touches the painted surface.
The abstract qualities in art are those which are independent of a work's resemblance to external reality.
In daily life most visual information is redundant.
In the case of photographic images it has been calculated that this redundancy may be as high as 90%.
It may have resulted from a confluence of external influences, some of which just mentioned above, but type of unsparing, geometrically-based abstraction which so deeply characterizes his method mode of rendering must have sprung from the artist's deepest personal inclinations, as there is no real comparable rendering in painting of the time in neither the Netherlands nor the rest of Europe.
The abstract quality of Vermeer's painting may be so appreciated today not only because it is consistent with contemporary taste, but because, perhaps, abstraction reveals something of the mechanics of vision and renders assimilation more efficient, and therefore more pleasurable.
The ability of the human mind to abstract may also be linked to the limitations of its memory system.
Throughout the twentieth-century, the term "abstraction" was regularly summoned to describe certain aspects of Vermeer's style.
Without abstraction the brain would be enslaved to the particular because it would have to recall every detail in order to make sense of the contents of the visible world.Just as the brain searches for constancies and essentials, so does the artist.